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The Bible was written under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit by over 40 different authors from all walks of life:shepherds, farmers, tent-makers, physicians, fishermen, priests, philosophers and kings. Despite these differences in occupation and the span of years it took to write it, the Bible is an extremely cohesive and unified book.
True Forgiveness! 

Have you ever tried to forgive someone and found you simply couldn't do it?

You've cried about it and

- prayed about it and

- asked God to help you.

But those old feelings of resentment just failed to go away.


Put an end to those kinds of failures in the future-

- by basing your forgiveness on faith rather than feelings.


True forgiveness doesn't have anything at all to do with how you feel.

It's an act of the will. It is based on obedience to God and on faith in Him.


That means once you've forgiven a person-

- you need to consider him permanently forgiven! When old feelings rise up within you and


Satan tries to convince you that you haven't really forgiven, resist him.

Say, "No, I've already forgiven that person by faith. I refuse to dwell on those old feelings."


Then, according to 1 John 1:9-

Believe that you receive forgiveness and cleansing from the sin of unforgiveness and from all unrighteousness associated with it including any remembrance of having been wronged!


Have you ever heard anyone say, "I may forgive, but I'll never forget!"

That's a second-rate kind of forgiveness-

- that you, as a believer, are never supposed to settle for.

You're to forgive supernaturally "even as God for Christ's sake hath forgiven you." Eph. 4:32.


You're to forgive as God forgives.

To release that person from guilt permanently and unconditionally and to operate as if nothing bad ever happened between you.

You're to purposely forget as well as forgive.


As you do that-

- something supernatural will happen within you.

The pain once caused by that incident will disappear.

The power of God will wash away the effects of it.

And you'll be able to leave it behind you once and for all.


Don't become an emotional bookkeeper-

- keeping careful accounts of the wrongs you have suffered.


Learn to forgive and forget.

It will open a whole new world of blessing for you.

" not touchy or fretful or resentful; it takes no account of the evil done to it pays no

attention to a suffered wrong." 1 Corinthians 13:5.



          TERM PAPER





















           DEAN SHINAVER














 INTRODUCTION                                                                                          3

CONFIRMATION OF DAVID'S EXISTENCE                                       6

DAVID AND ARCHAEOLOGY                                                                   8

A PLAN OF THE CITY OF JERUSALEM                                                  9

BIBLIOGRAPHY                                                                                           12




































 "The archaeological record of Jerusalem in the late 11th and early 10th centuries B.C. is not nearly as prolific as we might wish it were. Indeed, one of the noteworthy products of excavation in Jerusalem, commonly called the Tower of David, excavated by archaeologist R.A.S. Macalister in the 1920s, bears a title that can easily mislead. Although the tower's name associates the structure with Israel's most famous monarch, in fact only the lower courses of the tower are from the Davidic period. Most of this fortified edifice dates to the Maccabean period of the 2nd century B.C."[1]                      Other archaeological work convincingly documents the history of the Bible. In particular, the grande dame of British biblical archaeology, Kathleen Kenyon, revealed an important archaeological feature from the time of David. In 1961 her excavation exposed a part of the Jebusite wall that surrounded Jerusalem when David took the city near the end of the 11th century B.C. (2 Samuel 5:6,7).

In earlier issues The Good News has examined archaeological discoveries that confirm and help us better understand the biblical accounts in the five books of Moses and Israel's history as recorded in Joshua and Judges. In this issue we focus on the beginning of the Israelite monarchy, the time of King David. The Bible discusses this period in the books of 1 and 2 Samuel and 1 Chronicles.

When the period described in the book of Judges ended, a new age arrived with the kings of Israel, an era lasting more than 400 years. The monarchy lacked an auspicious beginning. God eventually rejected Saul, the first king, because of his continual disobedience. David, the son of Jesse, replaced Saul.

David's reign began the golden age of Israel. This powerful king wisely governed the tribes of Israel, forging them into a unified nation. God blessed this obedient and multitalented man. David was not a valiant soldier, but a great military strategist, able administrator, diplomat, composer and musician.

Under David's inspired leadership, Israel soon became powerful, extending its northern frontiers to the River Euphrates and its southern borders to the Red Sea. "And David defeated Hadadezer king of Zobah as far as Hamath, as he went to establish his power by the River Euphrates ... So David reigned over all Israel, and administered judgment and justice to all his people" (1 Chronicles 18:3, 14).

After centuries of Israelite struggle against the Canaanites and Philistines, it was David who finally triumphed decisively over Israel's enemies. The ensuing peace freed the Israelites to make full use of the formidable natural resources of the area. This liberty produced great prosperity. From their humble beginning as a slave people, then as pastoral tribes, they ascended to great heights. David transformed Israel into a highly organized state that would later leave a lasting mark on Western civilization.

"The reign of David," comments one authority, "marks-politically speaking-Israel's golden age. A power vacuum in both Egypt and Mesopotamia made it possible for the tribes that had entered Canaan under Joshua a few centuries earlier to become a mighty nation ... David was king of an area extending from the Red Sea to the Euphrates"      David was originally headquartered in Hebron, in southern Judah, but now, with all 13 tribes accepting his rulership, he needed a central base from which to govern. An ideal place was on the northern border of Judah, the city of Jebus, also called Jerusalem, but it was in the hands of the Jebusites, a remnant Canaanite tribe that had heavily fortified the city. "And David and all Israel went to Jerusalem, which is Jebus, where the Jebusites were, the inhabitants of the land" (1 Chronicles 11:4).                                                     The city was built on a mount in the midst of a large valley in the Judean mountains. It seemed impenetrable. When the Jebusites noticed David and his men were ready to attack them, they mocked their feeble efforts. "And the king and his men went to Jerusalem against the Jebusites, the inhabitants of the land, who spoke to David, saying, 'You shall not come in here; but the blind and the lame will repel you,' ..." (2 Samuel 5:6).

Yet David did not attempt a frontal attack on the fortress. Instead, he found the Achilles heel of the Jebusite defenses, a hidden water shaft that wound its way up into the city. Such a shaft for transporting water was a common feature of many fortified cities of that time. When David discovered the entrance, he realized it was a way to secretly enter the city and open its gates. "Whoever climbs up by way of the water shaft and defeats the Jebusites," he told his men, "shall be chief and captain" (2 Samuel 5:8).

In 1 Chronicles 11:6-7 we find who gained the honor: "And Joab the son of Zeruiah went up first, and became chief. Then David dwelt in the stronghold; therefore they called it the City of David."  After David conquered the Jebusite fortress, it became known as the City of David. As his reign prospered he soon began building to extend the city. "Then David dwelt in the stronghold, and called it the City of David. And David built all around from the Millo and inward. So David went on and became great, and the Lord God of hosts was with him" (2 Samuel 5:9-10).

The mount on which the Jebusite fortress stood was called Mount Zion. Nevertheless David took the stronghold of Zion (that is, the City of David)" (verse 7). Close by, to the north, was a hill called Mount Moriah, which David bought from Ornan the Jebusite.

Therefore, the angel of the Lord commanded Gad to say to David that David should go and erect an altar to the Lord on the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite... So David gave Ornan six hundred shekels of gold by weight for the place. And David built there an altar to the Lord, and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings, and called on the Lord; and He answered him from heaven by fire on the altar of burnt offering" (1 Chronicles 21:18, 25-26).

Eventually David moved the tabernacle and the ark of the covenant to this area, and later King Solomon built his magnificent temple on Mount Moriah. "Now Solomon began to build the house of the Lord at Jerusalem on Mount Moriah, where the Lord had appeared to his father David, at the place that David had prepared on the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite" (2 Chronicles 3:1).


Some historians and critics have questioned the existence of King David and have relegated Old Testament accounts about him to the status of mythology. "I am not the only scholar," remarks Philip Davies, "who suspects that the figure of King David is about as historical as King Arthur"[2]. Such professors cast doubt on the reliability of the biblical record and undermine the faith of others. They also rarely acknowledge the many discoveries that have corroborated the biblical account.

"There Avraham Biran and his team of archaeologists found a remarkable inscription from the ninth century B.C.E. that refers both to the 'House of David' and to the 'King of Israel.' This is the first time that the name David has been found in any ancient inscription outside the Bible". [3]More and more extrabiblical evidence involving Bible names and places is being discovered as the years go by. The skeptics are gradually having to retreat."[4]

Later another scholar found the name "House of David" in the inscriptions of the famous Moabite Stone, also called the Mesha stela, dated to the ninth century B.C., about 100 years after David's reign. It is hard to understand how David's name could appear in historical records if he were nothing but a later literary creation.

Anson Rainey, professor of ancient Near Eastern cultures, cautions the unwary about believing that the accounts of David and other biblical characters are but legends.         "As someone who studies ancient inscriptions in the original, I have a responsibility to warn the lay audience that the new fad, the 'deconstructionist school,' ... is merely a circle of dilettantes. Their view that nothing in Biblical tradition is earlier than the Persian period [540-330 B.C.], especially their denial of the existence of a United Monarchy, is a figment of their vain imagination. The name 'House of David' in the Tel Dan and Mesha inscriptions sounds the death knell to their specious conceit. Biblical scholarship and instruction should completely ignore the 'deconstructionist school.' They have nothing to teach us"[5]

Although some critics will not admit as much, the accumulating physical evidence confirms rather than denies what is written in God's Word. But, for those who have faith in what God has said in the Bible, it is not necessary to find material remains to corroborate these accounts. The apostle Paul boldly affirms that God "cannot lie" (Titus 1:2).


1. The Elah Valley. This is the traditional site of the confrontation between David and Goliath. The brook in which David found the stones for his sling is at the bottom right of the large hill that dominates the center of the valley.

2. Goliath, one of the Bible's great bullies. David used the slingshot to kill him. The slingshot used by David was a basic weapon common among soldiers and herdsmen at the time. As the story of David and Goliath shows, it could inflict fatal damage if used skillfully. It was a cheap, efficient projectile weapon used in the same way as a bow and arrow. Since it was made of perishable materials such as wool or palm fiber rope, or leather, none have survived from ancient times. Excavations around Israelite cities usually unearth hundreds of round sling stones, ranging from 2-3inches (5 to 7.5 cm) in diameter. An adult man could fling a stone at 100-150miles per house (160-240km per hour).

3. In this ivory plaque found at Megiddo, a harpist plays before the throne of the King, just as David played the harp to soothe Saul's anxiety.

4. The well in Gibeon may be the Pool of Gibeon mentioned in the fight between David's and Ishbosheth's twelve chosen men  'Abner said to Joab "Let the young men come forward and have a contest before us." Joab said "Let them come forward." So they came forward and were counted as they passed by, twelve for Benjamin and Ishbaal (Ishbosheth) son of Saul, and twelve of the servants f David. Each grasped his opponent by the head, and thrust his sword in his opponent's side; so they fell down together. Therefore that place was called Helkath-hazzurim, which is at Gibeon. The pool is about 35ft. deep, with a stairway leading down into a tunnel which gives on to a subterranean pool. This would have provided essential water, especially during a seige. 

Jebus was the original fortress captured by David. It lay on a rocky outcrop, with the valley falling away around it. 
The village attached to this fortress was to the north, though this area was probably not walled until some time during the reign of David's son Solomon. It sat on a large expanse of rock, and had some buildings and a threshing floor and the rocky surface was suitable for threshing.

1. "The Stepped Stone Structure - the only area in Jerusalem thought to date from the reign of King David, circa 10th century BC. Its strong foundations may have supported large stone walls which have since disappeared. The stones may have supported the walls of David's citadel, the fortress of Zion (2 Samuel 5:7-9) - though this point is hotly debated by archaeologists. There have been many elaborate reconstructions of the Ark of the Covenant  but in all probability the Ark was similar to the Shrine of Anubis found in the Tomb of Tutankhamun."[6] 
2. "The Shrine in Tutankhamun's tomb was a portable wooden shrine covered with gold leaf, surmounted by an image of Anubis; the Ark was a portable wooden shrine covered with gold leaf, surmounted by two cherubim. The word 'cherubim' is probably related to the Assyrian word 'karabu', a protective spirit. In Assyria this spirit was represented as having a human head, the body of a lion, and wings. The Shrine of Anubis was found wrapped in cloth. When the Ark was carried, it was covered by some form of wrapping - animals skins and a blue cloth, to hide it from the eyes of the people around. It would have been wrapped like this when David accompanied it into Jerusalem."

3. The stone inscription.

In 1993, archaeologists discovered a stone inscription at the ancient city of Dan, which refers to the "House of David." The "House of David Inscription" (Tel Dan Inscription) is the first ancient reference to King David outside the Bible. Specifically, the stone is a victory pillar of a King in Damascus dated a couple hundred years after David's reign, which mentions a "king of Israel of the House of David." Over the next year, more inscription pieces were discovered at the site, which allowed archaeologists to reconstruct the entirety of the declaration: "I killed Jehoram son of Ahab king of Israel and I killed Ahaziahu son of Jehoram king of the House of David." Remarkably, these are Jewish leaders linked to the lineage of David as recorded in the Bible.

"The House of David Inscription was discovered in 1994 during excavations at the ancient city of Dan. It is considered by many to be the first reference to the "House of David" discovered outside the biblical text. The House of David Inscription appears to be a fragment of a victory monument erected by a king of Damascus (Aram) during the 9th century BC, some 250 years after King David's reign. The fragment specifically mentions victories over a "king of Israel" (probably Joram) and a king of the "House of David" (probably Ahaziah). The House of David Inscription (Tel Dan Inscription) currently resides in the Israel Museum, Jerusalem."[8]

Perhaps more than any other academic discipline, archaeology has enlarged our understanding of the historical record in the Bible. Archaeologists have found some of their most spectacular artifacts in the City of David, an area of 12 square miles in the southeast part of modern-day Jerusalem.

The City of David itself contains only a limited amount of material from the actual Davidic period of Iron Age I and II. To date, diggers have unearthed no evidence of Solomon's Temple.





Alfred J. Hoerth. Archaeology and the Old Testament. Baker Books Published; March 2001.

Biblical Archaeology Review, July-August 1994, p. 55

Biblical Archaeological Review, March-April 1994, p. 26

Joseph Free, Howard Vos. Archaeology and Bible History. Zondervan: October 1992.

James K. Hoffmeier. The Archaeology of the Bible. Lion Uk, May 2008.


John H. Saihamer. Biblical Archaeology. Zondervan, August 1998.

NIV Archaeological Study Bible, an illustrated walk through biblical history and culture. Zondervan: Grand Rapids, Michigan 2005.

Wermer Keller. The Bible as History. Bantam; November 1983.



[1] NIV Archaeological Study Bible, an illustrated walk through biblical history and culture. Zondervan: Grand Rapids, Michigan 2005.


[2] (Biblical Archaeology Review, July-August 1994, p. 55)

[3] (Biblical Archaeological Review, March-April 1994, p. 26)

[4] Wermer Keller. The Bible as History. Bantam; November 1983.

[5] John H. Saihamer. Biblical Archaeology. Zondervan, August 1998.

[6] James K. Hoffmeier. The Archaeology of the Bible. Lion Uk, May 2008.

[7] Joseph Free, Howard Vos. Archaeology and Bible History. Zondervan: October 1992.


[8] Alfred J. Hoerth. Archaeology and the Old Testament. Baker Books Published; March 2001.



Let's not forget the blood that was shed for this great nation. Let's not forget the men and women that have died and made the sacrifice so we can have the freedom to love, to worship, and to excercise our faith.FlyHigh Ministries salutes all the soldiers who have made such a sacrifice. Let's not forget the Sacrifice that Jesus made on the Cross that allowed us to have fellowship with the Father.

1John 4:9-10 This is how God showed his love among us: He sent his one and only Son into the world that we might live through him. This is love: not that we love God, but that He love us and sent His Son as an atoning Sacrifice for our sins.

Declaring His Promises 


Ex 23:27 I will send My terror before you and will

throw into confusion all the people to whom you shall

come, and I will make all your foes turn from you [in


Deut 20:4 For the LORD your God is the one who goes

with you to fight for you against your enemies to give

you victory."

Deut 28:7 "The LORD will cause your enemies who rise

against you to be defeated before your face; they

shall come out against you one way and flee before you

seven ways.

Deut 33:27 The eternal God is your refuge and

dwelling place, and underneath are the everlasting

arms; He drove the enemy before you and thrust them

out, saying, Destroy!

Isa 42:13-17 The LORD will march out like a mighty

man, like a warrior he will stir up his zeal; with a

shout he will raise the battle cry and will triumph

over his enemies. 14 "For a long time I have kept

silent, I have been quiet and held myself back. But

now, like a woman in childbirth, I cry out, I gasp and

pant. 15 I will lay waste the mountains and hills and

dry up all their vegetation; I will turn rivers into

islands and dry up the pools. 16 I will lead the blind

by ways they have not known, along unfamiliar paths I

will guide them; I will turn the darkness into light

before them and make the rough places smooth. These

are the things I will do; I will not forsake them. 17

But those who trust in idols, who say to images, 'You

are our gods,' will be turned back in utter shame.

Isa 54:17 But no weapon that is formed against you

shall prosper, and every tongue that shall rise

against you in judgment you shall show to be in the

wrong. This [peace, righteousness, security, triumph

over opposition] is the heritage of the servants of

the Lord [those in whom the ideal Servant of the Lord

is reproduced]; this is the righteousness or the

vindication which they obtain from Me [this is that

which I impart to them as their justification], says

the Lord.

Isa 65:24 And it shall be that before they call I

will answer; and while they are yet speaking I will

hear. [Isa 30:19; 58:9; Matt 6:8.]

Luke 1:37,45 For with God nothing is ever impossible

and no word from God shall be without power or

impossible of fulfillment.

...And blessed (happy, to be envied) is she who

believed that there would be a fulfillment of the

things that were spoken to her from the Lord.

John 15:7-8 If you live in Me [abide vitally united

to Me] and My words remain in you and continue to live

in your hearts, ask whatever you will, and it shall be

done for you. When you bear (produce) much fruit, My

Father is honored and glorified, and you show and

prove yourselves to be true followers of Mine.

1 Cor 15:25-28 For [Christ] must be King and reign

until He has put all [His] enemies under His feet. [Ps

110:1.] 26 The last enemy to be subdued and

abolished is death. 27 For He [ the Father] has put

all things in subjection under His [Christ's] feet.

But when it says, All things are put in subjection

[under Him], it is evident that He [Himself] is

excepted Who does the subjecting of all things to Him.

[Ps 8:6.] 28 However, when everything is subjected to

Him, then the Son Himself will also subject Himself to

[the Father] Who put all things under Him, so that God

may be all in all [be everything to everyone, supreme,

the indwelling and controlling factor of life].

1 Cor 15:54-57 And when this perishable puts on the

imperishable and this that was capable of dying puts

on freedom from death, then shall be fulfilled the

Scripture that says, Death is swallowed up (utterly

vanquished forever) in and unto victory. [Isa 25:8.]

55 O death, where is your victory? O death, where is

your sting? [Hos 13:14.] 56 Now sin is the sting of

death, and sin exercises its power [upon the soul]

through [the abuse of] the Law. 57 But thanks be to

God, Who gives us the victory [making us conquerors]

through our Lord Jesus Christ.


Rom 4:19-20 He did not weaken in faith when he

considered the [utter] impotence of his own body,

which was as good as dead because he was about a

hundred years old, or [when he considered] the

barrenness of Sarah's [deadened] womb. [Gen 17:17;


20 No unbelief or distrust made him waver

(doubtingly question) concerning the promise of God,

but he grew strong and was empowered by faith as he

gave praise and glory to God,

Ex 15:6-10

6 "Your right hand, O LORD, has become glorious in

power; Your right hand, O LORD, has dashed the enemy

in pieces. 7 And in the greatness of Your excellence

You have overthrown those who rose against You; You

sent forth Your wrath; It consumed them like stubble.

8 And with the blast of Your nostrils The waters were

gathered together; The floods stood upright like a

heap; The depths congealed in the heart of the sea. 9

The enemy said, 'I will pursue, I will overtake, I

will divide the spoil; My desire shall be satisfied on

them. I will draw my sword, My hand shall destroy


10 You blew with Your wind, The sea covered them; They

sank like lead in the mighty waters.

Deut 26:8 And the Lord brought us forth out of Egypt

with a mighty hand and with an outstretched arm, and

with great (awesome) power and with signs and with


Ps 106:9 He rebuked the Red Sea also, and it dried

up; so He led them through the depths as through a

pasture land. [Ex 14:21.]

Isa 40:25-26 "To whom then will you liken Me, Or to

whom shall I be equal?" says the Holy One. 26 Lift up

your eyes on high, And see who has created these

things, Who brings out their host by number; He calls

them all by name, By the greatness of His might And

the strength of His power; Not one is missing.

Isa 40:28-31 Have you not known? Have you not heard?

The everlasting God, the LORD, The Creator of the ends

of the earth, Neither faints nor is weary.His

understanding is unsearchable. 29 He gives power to

the weak, And to those who have no might He increases

strength. 30 Even the youths shall faint and be weary,

And the young men shall utterly fall, 31 But those

who wait on the LORD Shall renew their strength; They

shall mount up with wings like eagles, They shall run

and not be weary, They shall walk and not faint.

Isa 44:24-26 [Judah Will Be Restored ]

Thus says the LORD, your Redeemer, And He who formed

you from the womb:"I am the LORD, who makes all

things, Who stretches out the heavens all alone, Who

spreads abroad the earth by Myself;

25 Who frustrates the signs of the babblers, And

drives diviners mad; Who turns wise men backward, And

makes their knowledge foolishness;

26 Who confirms the word of His servant, And

performs the counsel of His messengers; Who says to

Jerusalem, 'You shall be inhabited,' To the cities of

Judah, 'You shall be built,' And I will raise up her

waste places;

Eph 1:17-22 [For I always pray to] the God of our

Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, that He may

grant you a spirit of wisdom and revelation [of

insight into mysteries and secrets] in the [deep and

intimate] knowledge of Him, 18 By having the eyes of

your heart flooded with light, so that you can know

and understand the hope to which He has called you,

and how rich is His glorious inheritance in the saints

(His set-apart ones), 19 And [so that you can know

and understand] what is the immeasurable and unlimited

and surpassing greatness of His power in and for us

who believe, as demonstrated in the working of His

mighty strength,

20 Which He exerted in Christ when He raised Him from

the dead and seated Him at His [own] right hand in the

heavenly [places],

21 Far above all rule and authority and power and

dominion and every name that is named [above every

title that can be conferred], not only in this age and

in this world, but also in the age and the world which

are to come. 22 And He has put all things under His

feet and has appointed Him the universal and supreme

Head of the church [a headship exercised throughout

the church], [Ps 8:6.]

Col 2:12-15 And you, being dead in your trespasses

and the uncircumcision of your flesh, He has made

alive together with Him, having forgiven you all

trespasses, 14 having wiped out the handwriting of

requirements that was against us, which was contrary

to us. And He has taken it out of the way, having

nailed it to the cross. 15 Having disarmed

principalities and powers, He made a public spectacle

of them, triumphing over them in it.

Rev 1:16-19 And when I saw Him, I fell at His feet

as dead. But He laid His right hand on me, saying to

me, "Do not be afraid; I am the First and the Last.

18 I am He who lives, and was dead, and behold, I am

alive forevermore. Amen. And I have the keys of Hades

and of Death.