April 05, 2009
This research proposal is a requirement of Amridge University to fulfill this course, Research and Evaluation (RS6539A), Dr. James F Crabtree, Spring 2009 of Mater degree in Divinity .
A. This paper explores the issue of homelessness among US veterans. In particular, I focus the number of homeless veterans and how to use the services available to them through the US government and the Veterans Administration. The paper lists several of the factors the research found that may determine if veterans seek help. I have concludes that these studies highlight the need for effective social services in local areas for veterans. The research topic I have chosen is Homeless veteran in the United States of America. I am an Iraq veteran who served in Iraq in 2005. This research paper is required for that class of Research and Evaluation (RS6539A) of Spring 2009. The professor is Dr. James F Crabtree. I have chosen to write about the Homeless veteran, which occurred since World War I, because it interests me. My father is a Vietnam veteran. I was ultimately shocked that the United States has a lot of homeless veteran who we called “Heroes” - I was also upset that we are not really paying much attention to our heroes who served our nations and fought for our freedom. So, I did a small research paper on how the government help and support homeless veteran and veteran families. I feel it is very important for all Americans to know about what our "free" country did and why it was done to support our veterans. I think there is no reason at all to forget about this tremendous mistake our country made in every wars that occurred and not paying much attention to our heroes.
B. This topic is appropriate for Writing 123 because it is informative to me and my readers. I have previously researched about this topic, but I would like to perform more in-depth, quality, college-level research and learn more about the complete situation. I feel that this will be a challenge and I will learn a wealth of information. Also, there is a wealth of information. Therefore, I can do an in-depth research of the topic using many kinds of sources, and draw logical conclusions as well as fulfill the requirements satisfactorily for this course.
C. The documentation system I have chosen is Quantitative Research. My topic's subject matter is quantitative and historical background of veterans who fought for our country.
II. Leading Research Question and Hypothesis
A. The leading research Question that I propose to pursue is: Was our government help, support our veterans, homeless veterans, and their families? Was our veterans know how to access to the facilities such as the VA and other organization that support veterans?
B. My working hypothesis (I propose) is that the homeless veteran since World War I, World War II, Cold War, Vietnam War and Iraq War have taken care by our government. The result was base on my research- we have a lot of number of homeless veterans.
III. Research Strategy
A. What do I need to find out through research?
Approximately 40% of homeless men are veterans, although veterans comprise only 34% of the
general adult male population. The National Coalition for Homeless Veterans estimates that on
any given night, 200,000 veterans are homeless, and 400,000 veterans will experience
homelessness during the course of a year (National Coalition for Homeless Veterans, 2006). 97%
of those homeless veterans will be male (Department of Veterans Affairs, 2008). The National
Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients reports that veterans account for 23% of
all homeless people in America (U.S. Inter agency Council on Homelessness and the Urban
Despite the over representation of veterans in the homeless population, homelessness among
veterans is not clearly related to combat military experience. Rather, studies show that homeless
veterans appear less likely to have served in combat than housed veteran.
Similarly, despite the widespread perception that Vietnam-era veterans constitute the majority of
homeless veterans, research indicates that the veterans who are at greatest risk of homelessness
are those who served during the late Vietnam and post-Vietnam era. These
veterans had little exposure to combat, but appear to have increased rates of mental illness and
addiction disorders, possibly due to recruitment patterns. Faced with a lack of affordable
housing, declining job opportunities, and stagnating wages, people with these disabilities are more vulnerable to homelessness. About one-third of the adult homeless population have served their country in the Armed Services. Current population estimates suggest that about 154,000 veterans (male and female) are homeless on any given night and perhaps twice as many experience homelessness at some point during the course of a year. Many other veterans are considered near homeless or at risk because of their poverty, lack of support from family and friends, and dismal living conditions in cheap hotels or in overcrowded or substandard housing.
Right now, the number of homeless male and female Vietnam era veterans is greater than the number of service persons who died during that war -- and a small number of Desert Storm veterans are also appearing in the homeless population. Although many homeless veterans served in combat in Vietnam and suffer from PTSD, at this time, epidemiologic studies do not suggest that there is a causal connection between military service, service in Vietnam, or exposure to combat and homelessness among veterans. Family background, access to support from family and friends, and various personal characteristics (rather than military service) seem to be the stronger indicators of risk of homelessness.
Almost all homeless veterans are male (about three percent are women), the vast majority are single, and most come from poor, disadvantaged backgrounds. Homeless veterans tend to be older and more educated than homeless non-veterans. But similar to the general population of homeless adult males, about 45% of homeless veterans suffer from mental illness and (with considerable overlap) slightly more than 70% suffer from alcohol or other drug abuse problems. Roughly 56% are African American or Hispanic.
We analyzed data from the Department of Veterans Affairs and the Census Bureau to examine homelessness and severe housing cost burden among veterans. This report includes the following findings:
Lack of affordable housing is the primary driver of homelessness. The 23.4 million U.S. veterans generally do not have trouble affording housing costs; veterans have high rates of home ownership and appear generally well housed. However, there is a subset of veterans who have severe housing cost burden.
Homeless veterans are more likely to be white, better educated, and previously or currently
married than homeless non-veterans.
Female homeless veterans represent an estimated 3% of homeless veterans. They are more likely
than male homeless veterans to be married and to suffer serious psychiatric illness, but less likely
to be employed and to suffer from addiction disorders. Comparisons of homeless female veterans
and other homeless women have found no differences in rates of mental illness or addictions.
Minorities are overrepresented among homeless veterans (56% are African-American or
Hispanic), just as they are among the homeless population in general. However, there is some
evidence that veteran status reduces vulnerability to homelessness among Black Americans.
Black non-veterans are 2.9 times more likely to be homeless than white non-veterans. Black
veterans, on the other hand, are 1.4 times more likely to be homeless than white veterans. The reduced risk of homelessness among Black American veterans is most
likely the result of educational and other benefits to which veterans are entitled, and thereby
provides indirect evidence of the ability of government assistance to reduce homelessness.
According to the National Coalition for Homeless Veterans (NCHV), the majority of homeless
veterans are single, and most come from poor, disadvantaged communities. 45% suffer from
mental illness, and half have substance abuse problems.
4. PROGRAMS AND POLICY ISSUES
The U.S. Department of Veterans’ Affairs (VA) administers a number of programs for homeless
veterans: the Domiciliary Care for Homeless Veterans program (DCHV) and the Health Care for
Homeless Veterans program (HCHV) are two of the oldest. Both programs provide outreach,
psychosocial assessments, referrals, residential treatments, and follow-up case management to
homeless veterans. Past evaluations have found that these programs significantly improve
homeless veterans' housing, psychiatric status, employment, and access to health services
(Friesman et al., 1996; U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, 1995). In addition, the VA has
initiated several new programs for homeless veterans and has expanded partnerships with public,
private, and non-profit organizations to expand the range of services for homeless veterans (U.S.
Department of Veterans Affairs, 1997).
The Grant and Per Diem program is offered annually (as funding permits) by the VA to fund
community-based agencies (up to 65% of a given project) providing transitional housing or
service centers for homeless veterans.
A. Veterans Industries -
In VA's Compensated Work Therapy/Transitional Residence (CWT/TR) Program,
disadvantaged, at-risk, and homeless veterans live in supervised group homes while working for
pay in VA's Compensated Work Therapy Program (also known as Veterans Industries). Veterans
in the CWT/TR program work about 33 hours per week, with approximate earnings of $732 per
month, and pay an average of $186 per month toward maintenance and up-keep of the residence.
The average length of stay is about 174 days. VA contracts with private industry and the public
sector for work done by these veterans, who learn new job skills, relearn successful work habits,
and regain a sense of self-esteem and self-worth.
B. Supported Housing -
Like the HUD-VASH program, staff in VA's Supported Housing Program provides ongoing case
management services to homeless veterans. Emphasis is placed on helping veterans find
permanent housing and providing clinical support needed to keep veterans in permanent housing.
Staff in these programs operate without benefit of the specially dedicated Section 8 housing
vouchers available in the HUD-VASH program but are often successful in locating transitional
or permanent housing through local means, especially by collaborating with Veterans Service
In addition, the VA extends loans, funds Veterans Benefits Counselors, and operates drop-in
centers where veterans can clean up and receive therapeutic treatment during the day.
The National Coalition for Homeless Veterans estimates that the VA serves about 25% of
veterans in need – a figure that would leave approximately 300,000 veterans each year to seek
assistance from local government agencies and voluntary organizations.
In 1995, the VA conducted a national survey of VA homeless programs and community
organizations to identify needs of homeless veterans. The survey found that long-term permanent
housing, dental care, eye care, and childcare were the greatest unmet needs of homeless veterans
(U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, 1995). Similarly, participants in a National Summit on
Homelessness Among Veterans sponsored by the VA identified the top priority areas as jobs,
preventing homelessness, housing, and substance abuse/mental health treatment (U.S.
Department of Veterans Affairs, 1997).
In general, the needs of homeless veterans do not differ from those of other homeless people.
The National Coalition for Homeless Veterans suggests the most effective programs are
“community-based, nonprofit, "veterans helping veterans" groups” (NCHV “Background and
Statistics”). However there is some evidence that programs which recognize and acknowledge
veteran experience may be more successful in helping homeless veterans transition into stable
housing. Until serious efforts are made to address the underlying causes of homelessness,
including inadequate wages, lack of affordable housing, and lack of accessible, affordable health
care, the tragedy of homelessness among both veterans and non-veterans will continue to plague
I have found that there are numerous books written about the homeless veterans and a lot of website that can give me the information on homeless veterans.
6. Research Question and Working Hypothesis
(a) My research topic is: Homelessness veterans in our society, community. The increasing number of homeless veterans is a community problem in the United States: As a community, how can we address this problem?
(b) Working hypothesis: This is a problem not small, but in large. It is a problem that must be addressed as a community to have a working, caring system to provide for the veterans who are homeless. This involves having a community home to provide for these homeless individuals, having a foster care system that supplements a community home and having people receiving these services be treated with “respect, dignity and without labeling or discrimination of any type”.
3. Research Strategy Description
(a) What do I need to discover in my research?
In the US you see many homeless people. A lot of them are veterans who is mentally ill, who has been in a war zone. These veterans can not fit in any social. They can not fit in their families. They have many symptoms after they got back from a war zone.
Is our mental health system adequate? What services are provided in the Untied States for veterans? Why are the veteran who is mentally ill homeless? What services are needed in the United States of America?
There is a different approach for the care of the veteran who is mentally ill in the United States. We do not want to see a person sleeping on the street there. We will try our best to have a successful way to care for the homeless veteran and veteran who is mentally ill.
A. Who are homeless veterans?
The U. S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) says the nation's homeless veterans are mostly males (4 % are females). The vast majority are single, most come from poor, disadvantaged communities, 45% suffer from mental illness, and half have substance abuse problems. America’s homeless veterans have served in World War II, Korean War, Cold War, Vietnam War, Grenada, Panama, Lebanon, Operation Enduring Freedom (Afghanistan), Operation Iraqi Freedom, or the military’s anti-drug cultivation efforts in South America. Forty-seven percent of homeless veterans served during the Vietnam Era. More than 67% served our country for at least three years and 33% were stationed in a war zone.
B. How many homeless veterans are there?
Although accurate numbers are impossible to come by -- no one keeps national records on homeless veterans -- the VA estimates that 154,000 veterans are homeless on any given night. And approximately twice that many experience homelessness over the course of a year. Conservatively, one out of every three homeless men who is sleeping in a doorway, alley or box in our cities and rural communities has put on a uniform and served this country. According to the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients (U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness and the Urban Institute, 1999), veterans account for 23% of all homeless people in America.
C. Why are veterans homeless?
In addition to the complex set of factors affecting all homelessness -- extreme shortage of affordable housing, livable income, and access to health care -- a large number of displaced and at-risk veterans live with lingering effects of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and substance abuse, compounded by a lack of family and social support networks.
A top priority is secure, safe, clean housing that offers a supportive environment which is free of drugs and alcohol.
While "most homeless people are single, unaffiliated men … most housing money in existing federal homelessness programs, in contrast, is devoted to helping homeless families or homeless women with dependant children," according to "Is Homelessness a Housing Problem?" in Understanding Homelessness: New Policy and Research Perspectives, published by Fannie Mae Foundation in 1997.
D. Doesn’t the Department of Veterans Affairs take care of homeless veterans?
To a certain degree, yes. According to the VA, in the years since it "began responding to the special needs of homeless veterans, its homeless treatment and assistance network has developed into the nation’s largest provider of homeless services, serving more than 100,000 veterans annually."
With an estimated 300,000 veterans homeless at some time during the year, the VA reaches 33% of those in need ... leaving 200,000 veterans who must seek assistance from local government agencies and service organizations in their communities.
Since 1987, VA’s programs for homeless veterans have emphasized collaboration with community service providers to help expand services to more veterans in crisis. This partnership is credited with reducing the number of homeless veterans on any given day by nearly 25% over the last six years. For more information about VA homeless veteran programs, go to www.va.gov/homeless/.
E. What services do veterans need?
Veterans need a coordinated effort that provides secure housing and nutritional meals; essential physical health care, substance abuse aftercare and mental health counseling; and personal development and empowerment. Veterans also need job assessment, training and placement assistance.
NCHV strongly believes that all programs to assist homeless veterans must focus on helping veterans reach the point where they can obtain and sustain employment.
F. What seems to work best?
The most effective programs for homeless and at-risk veterans are community-based, nonprofit, "veterans helping veterans" groups. Programs that seem to work best feature transitional housing with the camaraderie of living in structured, substance-free environments with fellow veterans who are succeeding at bettering themselves. Because government money for homeless veterans is currently limited and serves only one in 10 of those in need, it is critical that community groups reach out to help provide the support, resources and opportunities most Americans take for granted: housing, employment and health care.
There are about 250 community-based veteran organizations across the country that have demonstrated impressive success reaching homeless veterans. These groups are most successful when they work in collaboration with federal, state and local government agencies, other homeless providers, and veteran service organizations. Veterans who participate in these programs have a higher chance of becoming tax-paying, productive citizens again.
G. What can you do?
Jim Hall. DAV Department of Indiana Sponsors 25th Stand Down for homeless veterans.(Disabled American Veterans, free meals provided to homeless peoples): An article from: DAV Magazine. DAV Magazine (Magazine/Journal), March 1, 2004.
Unite States. Homeless Assistance Programs for Veterans: Implementation of Public Law 107-95, the Homeless Veterans Comprehensive Assistance Act of 2001, and Status. Government Printing Office (January 2005).
Gale Reference Team. Homeless Veterans Programs: Bed Capacity, Service, and Communication Gaps Challenge the Grant and Per Diem Program.: An article from: General Accounting Office Reports & Testimony. General Accounting Office Reports & Testimony (Report). January 1, 2008.
United States. Pending health legislation, including the Heather French Henry Homeless Veterans Assistance Act: Hearing before the Committee on Veterans' Affairs, United ... first session, July 19, 2001. the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., [Congressional Sales Office] (2002).
Gale Reference Team. Helping homeless vets.(Editorials)(Program offers willing veterans a way out)(Editorial): An article from: The Register-Guard (Eugene). The Register-Guard (Eugene, OR) (Newspaper). November 15, 2006.
SUPPORT OUR VETERANS, AFTER ALL THEY WERE THERE WHEN YOU NEEDED THEM! PASTOR DEAN IN IRAQ
Let's not forget the blood that was shed for this great nation. Let's not forget the men and women that have died and made the sacrifice so we can have the freedom to love, to worship, and to excercise our faith.FlyHigh Ministries salutes all the soldiers who have made such a sacrifice. Let's not forget the Sacrifice that Jesus made on the Cross that allowed us to have fellowship with the Father.
1John 4:9-10 This is how God showed his love among us: He sent his one and only Son into the world that we might live through him. This is love: not that we love God, but that He love us and sent His Son as an atoning Sacrifice for our sins.
WHETHER YOU THINK YOU CAN'T